The New Covenant Explained

The Righteousness of God

The Radical Righteousness of God Revealed


“We believe that the letters ascribed to Paul were written by him in the course of the ministry as described in Acts or in the course of events which followed his imprisonment but preceded his martyrdom.”

Origin of Romans

From Corinth – 57 AD

Third Missionary journey - Acts 20:3

Tied to collection for church in Jerusalem - Romans 15:25 – 26; Acts 24:17

Internal evidence

Commendation of Phoebe         from Cencherea - 16:1 – 2

Gaius hosted Paul at Corinth - 16:23 & 1Cor. 1:14

Logical trip through Rome to Spain - 15:24 - 28

External evidence

All manuscripts agree about: authorship and destination

Ending is in dispute?

Benediction at 15:33?

Some mss end at chs. 14 or 16?

Destination of Romans

Church in Rome - 1:7

Paul had not visited - 1:13

Importance of Rome

Central to the empire

Strategic for Evangelism in Rome & west to Spain - Rom. 15:24

Had been on Paul’s  agenda - Acts 19:21; 23:11

Conditions in Rome

Christians returned after expulsion in 49AD

Better days of Nero’s early rule

Government generally fair and just

Police and jury system were effective

4 million people (Slaves around 50%)

Welfare, food imported

Circus Maximus

Large, influential Jewish colony

Religious free market

Many “god-fearers”

Church at Rome

Origin:         Acts 2:10 or Acts 10

                        Pricilla & Aquilla 16:3

                        Rufus, 16:13; Mk. 15:21


Long existence: 15:23

Membership: Gentiles & Jews

– (“god-fearers” 1:5; 4:1 – proselytes to Judaism – Acts 2:10)

No apparent errors or conflicts - Romans 14 & 15?

Meeting in various venues

Growing & healthy – 1:8


To make up for lack of personal visit in letter

Prepare for a larger outreach from Rome – finances plus

Enlist prayer

Build a theological foundation

Characteristic language and style


Catholic (universal – for all)

More quotes from OT

An Argumentative Style as seen by the repeated expression:  “What shall we say then?”

Romans 4:1

Romans 6:1

Romans 7:7

Romans 8:31

Romans 9:14

Romans 9:30

Unique content

Very doctrinal (selected doctrines)

Particularly the doctrine of         righteousness

Systematic and logical

Chs. 1-8 Salvation

Chs. 9-11 Israel

Chs. 12-16 application of doctrine

Romans 1:16-17 - For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek.For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith; as it is written, “BUT THE RIGHTEOUS man SHALL LIVE BY FAITH.”

The Righteousness of God

Revealed in the fidelity of God; for the promises of God must be fulfilled to accord with the divine nature. Rom. 3:3-4

Revealed in the wrath of God in His abhorrence and judgment of all sin.
Rom. 1:18-32 & 2:5-6

Revealed in the gift of the propitiatory death of Jesus Christ.         Rom. 3:25-26

Revealed in the linking of righteousness with faith, so that it is available to all.
Rom.1:17; 3:21-22

Extensive influence

Connected to every great revival of the church

Augustine converted by reading it

Background for Luther’s conversion and the reformation

Used in the conversions of John Wesley & Karl Barth.


Content of Romans

Introduction 1:1-17

Paul’s Greeting

Personal Matters

Theme Statement

The Sinfulness & Condemnation of All Men 1:18-3:20

The Guilt of the Gentiles

The Guilt of the Jews

The Guilt of all Men

The Justification of Believing Sinners 3:21-5:21

The Basis of Justification

Justification & the Law

Justification & Faith

Certainty of Justification by Faith

The Reign of Sin & of Grace

The Sanctification of Believing Sinners 6:1-8:39

Union with Christ

Enslavement to Sin or Righteousness

Freedom from the Law

Righteous Living via the Holy Spirit

After Sufferings Comes Glory

The Place of Israel in God’s Plans - 9:1-11:36

The Unbelief & Rejection of Israel

The Explanation of Israel’s Rejection

Israel’s Rejection is not Complete or Final

The Righteousness of God in Practical Living - 12:1-15:13

Being Consecrated to God

Ministering & Spiritual Gifts

Relating to those in the Body of Christ

Relating to those outside Body of Christ

Obligations to Human Government

Other Obligations

The Issue of Doubtful Things

Relating to Others

Conclusion- 15:14-16:27

Paul’s Purpose in Writing

Paul’s Plans for the Future

Paul’s Praise and Warnings


The Roman’s Road to Salvation:        3:23; 5:8; 6:23; 10:9-10; 10:13

Romans 8:28-29

Romans 8:31-39

Romans 11:33-36

Romans 12:1-2