The Harmony of the Gospels

Comparison of the Four Gospels

Jesus Is:

MATTHEW 
Promised King

MARK 
Servant of God

LUKE
Son of Man

JOHN 
Son of God

ORIGINAL READERS:

Jews

Gentiles, Romans

Greeks

Christians throughout the world

SIGNIFICANT THEMES: 

Jesus is the Messiah because He fulfilled Old Testament prophecy

Jesus backed up His words with action

Jesus was God but also fully human

Belief in Jesus is required for Salvation

WRITERS STYLE:

Teacher

Storyteller

Historian

Theologian

GREATEST EMPASSIS:

Jesus' Sermons & Words

Jesus' Miracles & Actions

Jesus' Humanity

The Principles of Jesus' Teaching

What is a “Harmony”

A “Harmony of the Gospels” is the arrangement of the gospels in parallel columns
          for the purpose of studying their similarities and differences.

German Bible Scholar, Andreas Osiander (1498-1552) was the first to use the term.

History of Harmonies

Tatian, a Christian from Syria, compiled the four gospels into a single paraphrased
          narrative called the Diatessaron. In A.D. 170

Amonnius of Alexandria took the text of Matthew and wrote beside the text in parallel
          columns any passages from the other three gospels which corresponded to them.
           In A.D. 2??

Eusebius of Caesarea developed a system of cross-references which preserved the
          sequential arrangement of each gospel & yet allowed the reader to find & study similar
          passages in the other Gospels. In A.D. 3??

J. J. Griesbach, made one of the most significant contributions to this field when he
          produced his Synopse, a parallel arrangement of the texts of the first three gospels, in
          1776.

Reasons for a Harmony

Recognizes the Gospels as historical writings

Highlights the historical foundation of Christianity.

Enhances our knowledge of the historical Jesus.

Beneficial to the church

Chronology of Christ’s Life

Period One: The Early Years

                - The Preview of Christ

                - The Birth of Christ

- The Youth of Christ

Period Two: Preparation

                - The Forerunner of Christ

                - The Baptism of Christ

                - The Temptation of Christ

Period Three: Early Ministry

                - The First Disciples

                - The Galilean Ministry

                - The Judean Ministry

                - The Samarian Ministry

Period Four: Galilee

                - The Tribute to John

                - The Apostles of Jesus

                - The Teachings of Jesus

                - The Miracles of Jesus

                - The Opposition to Jesus

                - The Changes in Ministry

Period Five: Training the Twelve

                - Jesus’ Withdrawal with the 12

                - Jesus’s Focus on the 12

Period Six: The Judean Ministry

                - Opposition to Jesus

                - Teachings of Jesus

Period Seven: Perean Ministry

                - Notable Events

                - Notable Miracles

                - Notable Teachings

Period Eight: The Last Days

                - His Sufferings

                - His Victory

What is: A Harmony of the Gospels? It is the arrangement of the gospels in parallel columns for the purpose of studying their similarities and differences. Andreas Osiander (1498-1552), a German Bible scholar of the Protestant Reformation, was the first person to use the phrase “harmony of the gospels” for a parallel organization of gospel texts which he designed. By choosing a musical term as a metaphor for his columnar arrangement, Osiander likened the total picture of Jesus supplied by all four gospels to the sound of several musical notes being played together in one chord. A harmony of the gospels may also be called a synopsis or a parallel of the gospels.

History of Harmonies: While the term “harmony of the gospels” was not used until the sixteenth century, Bible scholars began efforts to compare and harmonize the four accounts of Jesus as early as the second century. At that time, Tatian, a Christian from Syria, compiled the four gospels into a single paraphrased narrative called the Diatessaron. All we know about Tatian's work is from references to it by other writers.

The Diatessaron represents one approach to harmonizing the gospels: the weaving together of material from the gospels to present one, continuous narrative of Jesus' life. Several biblical scholars in the past two hundred years have attempted similar works. William Wrede, Samuel Reimarus, and the Europeans of the 1800's each tried to write the definitive “life of Jesus.” While Tatian apparently tried to accomplish his goal by combining and harmonizing the texts of the four gospels, picking and choosing passages he wanted to include or omit, Reimarus, Wrede, and their contemporaries took a different approach and analyzed the information contained in the gospels (not the actual texts themselves). The result was more akin to a biography which used for four gospels as sources than it was to an actual harmonization.

Few contemporary scholars give credence to attempts to “harmonize” either the texts or the information contained in the gospels into one, exhaustive record of Jesus. Rather, they recognize the differences and compare the variations between the gospels and use their findings as an aid for interpretation. The first great work in this second approach to harmonizing the gospels was done by Amonnius of Alexandria in the third century. Ammonius took the text of Matthew and wrote beside the text in parallel columns any passages from the other three gospels which corresponded to them. Consequently, Ammonius' work only showed the relationship between Matthew and the other three gospels. Any parallels which existed independently among the other three were ignored. In the fourth century, the church historian Eusebius developed a cross-reference system which provided a way to locate and study a passage which had parallels in any of the other gospels.

J. J. Griesbach, another German, made one of the most significant contributions to this field when he produced his Synopse, a parallel arrangement of the texts of the first three gospels, in 1776. Griesbach derived his title from the Greek word which means “to view at the same time,” and, consequently gave Matthew, Mark, and Luke the designation “synoptic gospels” because of their similar perspective (in contrast to John) on the life of Jesus. Greisbach's work still serves as the basic model for scholars who make comparisons between the gospels in order to aid their interpretation of a given text. Based upon Greisbach's pattern and the recognition that John is strikingly different from the synoptics, few contemporary scholars attempt to harmonize the texts of all four gospels.

Need for Comparative Study: Even the most casual reading of the New Testament reveals the need and helpfulness of a comparative study of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. Note the following:

1. Some of the material contained in one gospel is repeated almost word for word in one or both of the other gospels (the story of Jesus' disciples plucking grain on the Sabbath, Mark 2:23-27, Matthew 12:1-8; Luke 6:1-5).

2. Some material, part of which appears vital to the record of Jesus' teaching, is included in only one gospel (the parable of the Prodigal Son, Luke 15:11-32).

How are these facts to be explained, and what help do their answers provide for understanding the gospels? A comparative study helps answer these questions.

The Synoptic Problem As noted above, scholars have long noted the particular similarities which abound between Matthew, Mark, and Luke. In all three gospels:

1) The appearance of John the Baptist, Jesus' baptism and temptation, and the initiation of Jesus' public ministry are linked together.

2) Jesus' ministry is confined to Galilee until He attended the Passover celebration in Jerusalem where He was crucified.

3) The story ends with His crucifixion and resurrection.

In addition to the rough similarity in their plots and similar points of view, the three gospels exhibit an undeniable interrelatedness with respect to actual content: Luke contains 50 per cent of the substance of Mark's verses, while Matthew contains a full 90 per cent of Mark. Yet, for all these similarities, the three gospels also possess significant differences. How does one explain these facts? Scholars have labeled the issues surrounding this question “the synoptic problem.”

1. An Early Solution: One of the earliest and most influential answers to the synoptic problem was offered by Augustine (A.D. 354-430). He decided that Matthew wrote first and that Mark produced his gospel by abridging what Matthew had written. Luke was thought to be dependent on both of them. Augustine's position was the orthodox view for over 1400 years.

2. Later Solutions: During the 1800's, advances were made in archaeology and the study of ancient languages. New methods were introduced to biblical studies. These changes produced several fresh solutions to the synoptic problem.

The first “modern” solution focused on the hypothesis of a single, original gospel which is now lost to us. Some scholars believed it may have been an orally transmitted gospel which had become formalized through constant repetition, while others believed it was an actual document. In either case, those who believed this hypothesis assumed Matthew, Mark, and Luke individually selected material from this gospel as they wrote their accounts.

Other solutions to the problem centered on the belief that two documents were used by the gospel writers. Reversing the established view that Matthew was written first, proponents of the two document theory concluded that Mark was actually the first gospel and that the other two synoptic gospels were dependent upon Mark. Because of the similarities between teaching passages contained in both Matthew and Luke, these scholars also theorized that Matthew and Luke both had one other source, a collection of Jesus' teachings.

3. The Four Document Hypothesis In the early part of the twentieth century, B. H. Streeter, a British scholar, proposed the four document theory as a solution to the synoptic problem. Streeter agreed with the two document theory to a point, but thought it failed to go far enough in explaining the existence of material which was exclusive to either Matthew or Luke. Therefore, Streeter offered the hypothesis that the writers of the synoptic gospels used a total of four documents as sources for their works.

a. The Priority of Mark Like the proponents of the two document theory, Streeter believed Mark was written first and served as a source for both Matthew and Luke. Several facts led to this belief. First, all three gospels usually agree on the order in which they arrange their material. However, when they do disagree, Matthew and Mark frequently agree compared to Luke, or Luke and Mark will agree compared to Matthew. Matthew and Luke hardly ever agree compared to Mark. The same is true in word usage and sentence structure. Mark often agrees with Matthew or Luke against the other, but Matthew and Luke rarely agree against Mark. These two facts would indicate Mark was used by the other writers. A third piece of evidence indicating the priority of Mark is that statements in Mark which could offend or perplex readers are either omitted or presented in a less provocative form by the other two synoptics (compare Mark 4:38 with Matthew 8:25 and Luke 8:24). Streeter believed that when taken together, these three facts can only lead to the conclusion that Mark was written first and used by Matthew and Luke.

b. The Existence of “Q” Streeter also agreed with the proponents of the two document theory that Matthew and Luke used a common source other than Mark. German scholars gave this source the name “Q” from the German Quelle, which means “source.” Its content can only be deduced by comparing passages common to Matthew and Luke but absent from Mark. Scholars agree that Q was primarily a collection of Jesus' teachings with little narrative and no mention of the crucifixion and resurrection. The most significant contribution of Q is the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5-7 and Luke 6:20-49).

c. The “M” Source Streeter believed Matthew had access to a body of material unknown to (or at least unused by) Mark and Luke. This source derives its name “M” from the initial for Matthew. Because Matthew's infancy story differs from Luke, it is considered part of the material contained in this source. M also contained many Old Testament proof texts related to Jesus' role as Messiah.

d. The “L” Source The fourth and final source in the four document hypothesis is believed to contain the material exclusive to Luke. This source contained at least an infancy story and many parables. The stories of the Good Samaritan and the Prodigal Son are a part of this “L” source. Streeter's “M” and “L” sources involved the implausibility of sources containing, for example, infancy narrative, assorted parables, and nothing else. Few contemporary scholars believe “M” or “L” ever existed as documents. Conservatives trace the materials unique to Matthew or Luke to multiple strands of oral tradition. Radical critics treat these materials as the free creations of the evangelists.

The Place of Inspiration: Many persons believe the discussion of “sources” used by the gospel writers impinges on the inspiration of the Scriptures. If Matthew, Mark and Luke used other documents to write their gospels, does God still have a place in their authorship? Careful thought will reveal that “sources” and inspiration are not mutually exclusive. Old Testament writers clearly show they used written sources (Joshua 10:13; 2 Samuel 1:18; 1 Kings 11:41; 2 Chronicles 9:29).

Luke says, “Many have undertaken to draw up an account of the things that have been fulfilled among us, just as they were handed down to us by those who from the first were eyewitnesses and servants of the word. Therefore, since I myself have carefully investigated everything from the beginning, it seemed good also to me to write an orderly account for you… (Luke 1:1-3). Luke made an important admission in this statement: he indicated knowledge of other accounts of Jesus' life and message. No known theory of inspiration violates a person's humanity to the point of negating his or her memory. Therefore, the gospel authored by Luke would certainly have had something in common with the sources known to him. Additionally, no theory of inspiration states that the human authors of biblical material used information or words which, until the precise moment of writing, had been entirely unknown to the writer. To assume that inspiration cannot involve the process of helping a human being to recognize divine truth and to shape that truth into the specific message God wants communicated is to limit the abilities of God's Spirit. Inspiration of both Testaments included God's leading writers to proper sources and directing in the use of the sources.

Summary: While most contemporary scholars hold to the two document hypothesis (Matthew and Luke used Mark and “Q” but no other written sources), one must recognize any solution to the synoptic problem is a theory and not a proven fact. Many Bible students today are returning to the view Matthew was written first. It must be admitted that many of the answers we desire about the origins of the gospels are not available to us. Therefore, some modern questioners will find themselves extremely frustrated when they expect scientifically precise answers about documents, the original purpose of which was to be religiously reliable about the exciting good news from God through Jesus Christ. We can trust and obey the gospels without having the answer to every question about their origins and relationships.

The "harmony" of the Gospels is the agreement of the four biblical Gospels. The four New Testament Gospels are like the singers in a four-part choir. They each have their distinct parts to sing, yet the parts combine to make a beautiful composition. Each of the four Gospels gives testimony of Jesus from a slightly different perspective, but they all tell the same story. Thus, they are all in harmony with one another. There are also books that align the Gospel accounts chronologically which are called harmonies of the Gospels, and some Bibles have a reference section doing the same thing that is referred to as a harmony of the Gospels.

Matthew, Mark, and Luke are called the "synoptic" gospels, because they give a synopsis of most of the same events from the life of Jesus. John stands on its own, filling in gaps that the others leave out. Each one of these gospels was written for a different audience and emphasizes different things about Jesus. The Gospel of Matthew was written primarily for the Jews and emphasized how Jesus fulfilled the prophecies of a kingly Messiah. Mark was written primarily for Roman or Gentile Christians, so it includes few Old Testament prophecies, and explains many Jewish words and customs. Jesus is portrayed in Mark as the Divine Servant. Luke was also written primarily for Gentile believers, as it also explains Jewish customs and uses Greek names. Luke set out to write an orderly narrative of the life of Jesus, and presented Jesus as the Son of Man, emphasizing His full humanity. John’s Gospel emphasizes Jesus as the Son of God, and includes more of Jesus' revelations about Himself than any of the other gospels. It also gives a much more detailed picture of the events during Jesus' last days.

Some people have attempted to discredit the Bible by pointing out the inconsistencies in the Gospel narratives. They point out differences in the order in which the events are presented or minor details within those events. When the four accounts are placed side by side, we see that they do not all follow the same strict chronology. Much of the narrative in the Gospels is arranged in a topical order, where an event brings to mind a similar thought. This is the way most of us carry on conversations every day. The differences in minor details like the angels at Christ's tomb (Matthew 28:5; Mark 16:5; Luke 24:4; John 20:12) are also answered by allowing the text to speak. The differences are complimentary, not contradictory. New information is added, but it does not take away from the veracity of the old information.

Like the rest of Scripture, the four Gospels are a beautiful testimony of God’s revelation to man. Imagine a tax collector (Matthew), an untrained Jewish lad with a history as a quitter (Mark), a Roman doctor (Luke), and a Jewish fisherman (John) all writing harmonious testimony about the events in the life of Jesus. There is no way, without the intervention of God, that they could have written these amazingly accurate accounts (2 Timothy 3:16). The historical references, the prophetic references, and the personal details all work together to compose one very detailed, very accurate picture of Jesus—the Messiah, the King, the Servant and the Son of God.